High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Obstetric fistula (or vaginal fistula) is a severe medical condition in which a fistula (hole) develops between either the rectum and vagina or between the bladder and vagina after severe or failed childbirth, when adequate medical care is not available. Obstetric fistula was very common throughout the entire world but virtually disappeared within Europe and North America due to improvements in obstetrical care. To this day, the prevalence of obstetrical fistula is much lower in places that discourage early marriage, encourage and provide education of women, and grant women access to family planning and skilled medical teams to assist during childbirth. This condition is still very prevalent in the developing world, especially in parts of Africa and much of South Asia (India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nepal).
Infections of the genitourinary tract include infections of the bladder, kidney, prostate, vagina, and sexually transmitted infections. To gain access to the body, pathogens can penetrate mucous membranes lining the genitourinary tract. Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chancroid, Lymphogranuloma venereum, Trichomoniasis, and Granuloma inguinale are common genitourinary infections in both genders. Infections of the vagina are very common in women and include bacterial vaginosis, mycotic vulvovaginitis, and trichomoniasis. Those genitourinary infections that are common in women are discussed in this book include: Cervicitis, Salpingitis, Endometritis, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Tubo-ovarian abscess, Bacterial vaginosis, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, and Bartholin's cyst. Urethritis, Bacterial prostatitis, Epididymitis, Orchitis, Balanitis, and Balanoposthitis are common genitourinary infections in men and are discussed in this book. Those sexually transmitted infections, which affect genitourinary system are discussed in this book.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In medicine, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a form of cancer of the carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, lips, mouth, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, lungs, vagina, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium (epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation). A carcinoma can be characterized as either in situ (confined to the original site) or invasive, depending on whether the cancer invades underlying tissues, only invasive cancers are able to spread to other organs and cause metastasis. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ are also called Bowen's disease.
This introduction to genitourinary and pelvic radiology is a further volume in the Learning Imaging series. Written in a case-based format, the book is subdivided into ten chapters: kidney, adrenal gland, urinary bladder, collecting system and urethra, prostate and seminal vesicles, scrotum, obstetrics, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva, adnexa and retroperitoneum. Genitourinary radiology has undergone a tremendous change owing to advances in ultrasound, CT and MRI that have redefined our understanding of genitourinary and pelvic pathology. Each chapter includes an introduction and ten case studies with illustrations and comments from anatomical, physiopathological and radiological standpoints and with bibliographic recommendations. Learning Genitourinary and Pelvic Imaging will be of value for radiologists, radiology residents, medical students and anybody else working in genitourinary and pelvic pathology.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Spindle-cell squamous-cell carcinoma (also known as "Spindle-cell carcinoma") is a cutaneous condition, a subtype of squamous-cell carcinoma, characterized by spindle-shaped atypical cells. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC or SqCC), occasionally rendered as "squamous-cell carcinoma", is a histologically distinct form of cancer. It arises from the uncontrolled multiplication of malignant cells deriving from epithelium, or showing particular cytological or tissue architectural characteristics of squamous cell differentiation, such as the presence of keratin, tonofilament bundles, and/or desmosomes). Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in humans and other animals, and usually arises from mutated ectodermal or endodermal cells lining body cavities. Therefore, it can develop in a large number of organs and tissues, including the skin, lips, mouth, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, lung, vagina, and cervix, among others.
As a consequence of rapid changes in surgical technique and incorporation of new robotic technology and advanced intraoperative imaging, the second edition of this important textbook reflects these rapid changes in the field of robotic urologic surgery. The goals of this textbook are three-fold. First, it provides a comprehensive update on surgical techniques pertinent to each robotic urologic procedure being performed worldwide, spanning procedures performed for both upper urinary tract (e.g. adrenal, kidney, ureter) and lower urinary tract (e.g. bladder, prostate, seminal vesicle, vagina) as well as adult and pediatric conditions. Second, advances in new robotic instruments and technology as well as advanced intraoperative imaging modalities used for surgical navigation are incorporated. Third, to further improve upon the first edition, this textbook is highly illustrated with schematic drawings to aid an understanding of the surgical techniques. Links to online video content is presented throughout. Atlas of Robotic Urologic Surgery will serve as a vital step-by-step, highly illustrated comprehensive yet concise resource to urologic surgeons, trainees and robotic surgical assistants embarking on robotic surgery as part of their surgical armamentarium for treatment of urologic diseases.
Pelvic exenteration (or pelvic evisceration) is a radical surgical treatment that removes all organs from a person's pelvic cavity. The urinary bladder, urethra, rectum, and anus are removed. The procedure leaves the person with a permanent colostomy and vesicostomy. In women, the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and in some cases the vulva are removed. In men, the prostate is removed.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Embryologically, the bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder is in the abdomen even when empty.